The red lanterns hanging from the eves of machiya in Gion and neighboring areas of Kyōto indicate the five hanamachi (花街, lit. “flower town”) or geiko communities containing o-kiya (置き屋, geisha houses) and o-chaya (お茶屋, teahouses).
Centurally located Gion Kōbu, through which the main thoroughfare Hanami Kōji Dōri runs, has red lanterns with a white kushi dangō design, i.e. linked circles in a horizontal line around middle of the lantern. The lanterns of Kami-Shichiken (上七軒), the oldest of Kyōto’s hanamachi and located near Kitano Tenmangū shrine in the northwestern part of the city, are the inverse: linked red circles on a white background. Across the Kamo River in Pontochō, the lanterns feature two red birds, and so on.
Gion Kōbu 祇園甲部
Gion Higashi 祇園東
For the past several weeks I have been translating the university's website into English. It's a thankless task and I slowly losing my mind over it.
One thing people who don't understand or read Japanese probably can't appreciate is how different the syntax of the two languages is. Where English is, of course, Subject-Verb-Object (SVO), Japanese is SOV, but more often than not O-V, with the subject "understood" from context (though not always). Independent clauses or descriptive phrases usually come afterwards in English ("the house across the street", "the man I work with"). In Japanese, they come first ("the street across the house"; "I with work the man"). Cause or reason is usually given first in Japanese. ("Because it is going to rain, I'll take an umbrella.") In English, the result or consequence is emphasized. ("I'll take an umbrella because it's going to rain.")
Anyways, check the following out:
Sample of Original Japanese text
English written in Japanese Word Order
The Childhood Development department the study of children learning system of learning of originating Christianity of teaching upon based a wide learning and psychology base as child development of understanding human understanding through nursery technique and or education technique the acquisition of which through children abundantly contact and support can kindergarten teachers daycare workers and elementary school teachers of cultivation (we) aim.
Rough, direct translation:
The Childhood Development department . . . we aim to train/cultivate/educate kindergarten, nursery school and elementary school teachers . . . who can come into contact with and support/assist/attend to/give abundant and loving care to children by/through the acquisition/mastery of nursery school and educational technique/skills/arts by understanding child development and understanding humans with a broad education originating in the system of learning of the study of children and based on the teachings of Christ/Christianity and psychology as its base.
Original Japanese text
Japanese rewritten in English Word Order
子ども発達学科は . . . 目指します . . . 育成を . . . 幼稚園教諭・保育士・小学校教諭 . . . できる . . . 豊かに接し援助することの . . . 子どもと . . . によって . . . 習得すること . . . 保育技術や教育技術を . . . によって . . . 理解 . . .
子ども発達の . . . 人間 . . . 幅広い教養 . . . に基づく . . . 元 . . . 体系 . . . の学問 . . . 子ども学 . . . に . . . 教え. . . の . . .キリスト教 . . . と . . . 心理学 . . . とした . . . ベース.
I'm old enough to remember a time when cops really did look like the bumbling Deputy, Barney Fife, on The Andy Griffith Show. So, how the hell did we go from that ⤴︎ to this ⤵︎ ? Where did Officer Friendly go?
From ancient times in Japan, time was expressed by the duodecimal system introduced from China. The hour from eleven p.m. to one a.m. was the Hour of the Rat (子の刻, ne no koku). From one a.m. to three a.m. was The Hour of the Ox (丑の刻の刻, ushi no koku); three a.m. to five in the morning was The Hour of the Tiger (虎の刻, tora no koku); and so on.
Moreover, in the Edo Period a bell was rung to announce the hour, so the hour of the day was also known by the number of times the bell was rung. At midnight and noon, the bell was rung nine times. The clock was struck every koku (刻), about once every two hours or so: nine times at noon (九つ, kokonotsu), eight times around two in the afternoon (八つ, yattsu), seven times around four-thirty in the afternoon (七つ, nanatsu), and six times at sunset (暮れ六つ, kuremutsu, lit. “twilight six”). An interesting vestige of this former system, snacks and snack time are still called o-yattsu (お八つ) and o-yattsu no jikan (お八つの時間) today. Around nine in the evening, the bell was rung five times (五つ, itsutsu); at about ten-thirty at night, it was rung four times (四つ, yottsu). And at midnight, the bell was run nine times again. In this way, the bell was rung every two hours or so, first nine times, then eight, seven, six, five, four, and then nine times again.
Another vestige of this the former system is the use of the kanji for “horse” in telling time today. Twelve noon is called shōgo (正午, lit. “exactly horse”) because eleven a.m. to 1 p.m. used to be the Hour of the Horse. Anti meridiem, or a.m., today is gozen (午前, lit. “before the horse”) and post meridiem, or p.m., is gogo (午後, “after the horse”).
Another peculiarity of the former time-telling system was that although night and day was divided into twelve koku or parts, with six always referring to the sunrise and sunset. The length of the koku or “hours” varied throughout the year, such that the daytime koku were longer in the summer months and shorter in the winter months.
Because one koku was on average two hours long, each koku was divided into quarters, lasting an average of thirty minutes (Ex.: 辰の一刻, tatsu no ikkoku; 丑の三つ, ushi no mitsu) or thirds (Ex.: 寅の上刻, tora no jōkoku; 卯の下刻, u no gekoku). Night and day was also divided into 100 koku. On the spring and autumn equinoxes, day and night were both 50 koku long. On the summer solstice, daytime measured 60 koku and night 40. On the winter solstice, the opposite was true.
One last interesting factoid: each domain kept its own time with noon being the time that the sun was highest in the sky. When trains were first introduced to Japan, it was not unusual for a train to leave a city in the east at say eight in the morning and arrive at a station in another prefecture in the west, say an hour later, but it was still eight in the morning. Trains not only helped industry spread throughout the nation of Japan, but also brought about the first standards in the way time was told.
Different names for the month of June: